Understanding What Cancer Is


Cancer Signs and Symptoms

Each type of cancer has its own list of signs and symptoms. Many of these symptoms can also be attributed to other illnesses, which can sometimes make cancer difficult to diagnose.

Here are some general symptoms of cancer; having these symptoms does not indicate cancer, but having them for a long time does indicate that you should discuss your health with a health care provider!

  • Unexplained weight loss. Losing weight for no known reason is termed unexplained weight loss. An unexpected weight loss of 10 pounds or greater may be an indicator of cancer. Unexplained weight loss is common with pancreatic, lung, stomach, and esophageal cancers.
  • Fever. A fever typically occurs once cancer has spread to another location. It may also occur in the early stages of leukemia and lymphoma, and when treatment affects the immune system.
  • Pain. Pain occurs in many cancers. For example, pain is typically felt like an early symptom with bone cancer and testicular cancer. With other cancers, pain may not be experienced until the cancer has metastasized.
  • Skin changes. Most common in skin cancer, skin changes can also occur in other types of cancers as well.
    • Hyperpigmentation: darker looking skin
    • Jaundice: yellowing of the skin
    • Erythema: redness of the skin
    • Pruritis: itching
    • Excessive hair growth

How Is Cancer Treated?

There are many types of cancer treatments available. There are also many factors that will dictate which type of treatment your physician will recommend. You may receive one treatment or several treatments.

  • Surgery may be performed to remove all, or as much, of the tumor as possible.
  • Chemotherapy is a type of drug that is administered to kill cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, like x-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells.  Radiation therapy may be performed externally or internally (brachytherapy).
  • Hormone therapy is useful when you have a cancer that is fueled by hormones, such as breast cancer. With this type of therapy, hormones are removed or blocked so that cancer cells are unable to grow.
  • Bone marrow transplant, also known as a stem cell transplant, allows you to use your own stem cells or stem cells from a donor.  Bone marrow is the material inside of the bones that creates red blood cells from the stem cells. Because of bone marrow transplants, you may be able to receive higher doses of chemotherapy. It may also be indicated for diseased bone marrow.
  • Cryoablation uses a needle called a cryoprobe to kill cancer cells. The cryoprobe is inserted directly into the tumor; gas is pumped into the cryoprobe, freezing the cells. The tissue thaws then are frozen again. The process is repeated. This kills cancer cells.
  • Immunotherapy allows the body to use its own immune system to fight cancer. According to Mayo Clinic, “cancer can survive unchecked in your body because your immune system doesn’t recognize it as an intruder. Immunotherapy can help your immune system ‘see’ the cancer and attack it.”
  • Targeted drug therapy focuses on specific cancer cells.
  • Radiofrequency ablation uses a thin needle, which is inserted into the tumor. High-frequency energy is passed through the needle; this causes the surrounding tissues to heat up, killing cancer cells.
  • Clinical trials are studies that are attempting to find new ways to treat cancer.

Common Types of Cancer

Did you know that there have been over 200 types of cancers identified? Some of these cancers are undoubtedly more common than others. Here are some of the most common types of skin cancers.

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  • Brain and central nervous system tumors. These types of tumors make up approximately 26 percent of all childhood cancers. They are classified based on where the tumor originated; examples include gliomas, astrocytomas, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There are various types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and they affect different cells and body parts. This type of cancer can affect people at any age, and the prognosis varies based on a variety of factors. Approximately 67,500 people annually are diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Leukemia. There are various types of leukemia, but the four most common are acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia.  This type of cancer typically forms inside the bone marrow, resulting in overproduction of white blood cells.  Leukemia may be chronic, as it can begin very slowly without any symptoms, or acute, as the cells are unable to function normally, causing symptoms very quickly. Leukemia kills more children under the age of 20 than any other cancer.  It affects approximately 45,000 people annually.
  • Breast cancer. The most common type of cancer in women; this type of cancer may even affect men.  An estimated 242,500 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in women, and 2,550 annually in men.  Fortunately, the death rate for breast cancer has declined since 1989, most likely due to better diagnostics.
  • Colorectal cancer. This type of cancer affects both the colon – a part of the large intestine that helps to digest food – and the rectum. According to Everyday Health, “There will be about 146,970 new cases of colon and rectal cancers combined…” The number of young people with colorectal cancer is low, but the numbers were expected to double between the years of 1991 and 2014.
  • Lung cancer. Lung cancer can be sub-divided into two main types – small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. This type of cancer causes approximately 160,000 deaths annually. It should come as no surprise that smoking is the biggest risk factor. Fortunately, as the amount of smokers has decreased, so has the number of lung cancer cases. 
  • Prostate cancer. This is the most prevalent type of cancer in men, typically over the age of 50. The cancer typically occurs inside the tissues of the prostate gland, which is situated near the base of the bladder and near the rectum. This cancer causes approximately 183,500 cases annually.
  • Uterine cancer. Also known as endometrial cancer, this type of cancer affects the endometrium of the uterus. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding; this can occur in a healthy individual for any number of reasons, but experts believe it should be taken seriously if it occurs for three cycles in a row.  Uterine cancer affects approximately 55,000 people annually.
  • Skin cancer. Skin cancer affects more than one million people per year, and it can affect any part of the skin. However, it is most common to have skin cancer in an area that has been exposed to the sun. Skin cancer is most common in the elderly and those with a compromised immune system. Examples of skin cancer include squamous cell skin cancer and basal cell skin cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer. This butterfly-shaped gland in the neck has a host of responsibilities – it assists with metabolism, heart rate, maintaining body temperature, and fertility. Unfortunately, thyroid cancer is the most rapidly growing cancer in the U.S. Why? Perhaps because it is only now being caught. Fortunately, thyroid cancer is not a deadly cancer – it is generally treatable when it is caught. This cancer affects approximately 49,000 people annually.
  • Kidney cancer. This type of cancer occurs approximately twice as often in men as women, most likely due to exposure to carcinogens in the workplace and a higher likelihood of smoking. This type of cancer affects approximately 62,000 people annually.
  • Bladder cancer. This type of cancer affects men four times as often as women and experts are unsure why.  Smoking appears to be the biggest risk factor.  Bladder cancer affects approximately 73,000 people annually.

Resources

American Cancer Society (Signs and Symptoms of Cancer)

American Cancer Society (Understanding Advanced Cancer, Metastatic Cancer, and Bone Metastasis)

The American Childhood Cancer Organization (The Most Common Types of Childhood Cancer)

Cancer Society of Finland (What Causes Cancer?)

Everyday Health (Know the Most Common Types of Cancer)

Insider (The 11 Most Common Cancers in the US)

National Cancer Institute (Cancer Statistics)

National Cancer Institute (How Cancer is Diagnosed)

National Cancer Institute (What is Cancer?)

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Finding Hope Through Cancer Support Groups

Cancer support groups allow people with cancer or touched by the disease to talk about their experiences with others. Learn more about these groups here.
by Krystina Ostermeyer on February 7, 2019
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